## Monday, December 12, 2011

### Nice Creation Hymn from Psalm 8:1-6,9

Here is a nice hymn that the Bartlett family sang during family worship this morning.  A great way to praise God thinking of science and math as applied to creation. The music is from The 1912 Psalter which is included in the Trinity Hymnal.  To sing along you can access the words with audio here.

### Lord, our Lord, thy glorious Name — Thanksgiving (Gilbert)

Original Trinity Hymnal, #107 (Psalm 8:1-6, 9)

Lord, our Lord, thy glorious Name
All thy wondrous works proclaim;
In the heav'ns with radiant signs
Evermore thy glory shines.
Infant lips thou dost ordain
Wrath and vengeance to restrain;
Weakest means fulfil thy will,
Mighty enemies to still.

Moon and stars in shining height
Nightly tell their Maker's might;
When thy wondrous heav'ns I scan,
Then I know how weak is man.
What is man that he should be
Loved and visited by thee,
Raised to an exalted height,
Crowned with honor in thy sight?

With dominion crowned he stands
O'er the creatures of thy hands;
All to him subjection yield
In the sea and air and field.
Lord, our Lord, thy glorious Name
All thy wondrous works proclaim;
Thine the Name of matchless worth,
Excellent in all the earth.

## Sunday, December 4, 2011

### Bartlett Boys Muskrat Harvest

Jonathan and David Bartlett have been busy trapping muskrats on our farm this week.  They received $70 for twenty muskrats yesterday, then used the money to buy supplies for their plans to trap coyotes. For a large muskrat they were paid$4 and $2 for the small ones. For that price they were delivered whole and frozen. Next time they plan to skin and stretch for an extra$1 each.  Muskrat skins tanned are selling for $10 each. It takes about two muskrat skins to make a muskrat hat which sells for$120.

We have been amazed at how God has so much value running or swimming around the wilderness.  It just takes a little time, skill and diligence to take the harvest!

He becometh poor that dealeth with a slack hand:
but the hand of the diligent maketh rich.

Proverbs 10:4

### Pluralistic Metaphysics

Empedocles (490-430 BC) was born in Sicily, Greece and was a disciple of Parmenides. He was one of several Greek philosophers that incorrectly figured that instead of the universe having one underlying substance that it had several underlying substances. Specifically, he considered earth, air, fire, and water as the four primal elements which were unchanging and eternal. Further, he (incorrectly) figured that love and strife were the two active and opposing forces which moved earth, air, fire and water to action. This lead him to believe in "survival of the fittest" long before Darwin, along with ideas like reincarnation.

He supported the poor, persecuted overbearing civil magistrates, and even declined the position of Sovereign over his city when it was offered to him. He at least thereby seemed to live by the beliefs he had.

He was a great public speaker, knew alot about nature, the curing of diseases and how to avoid epidemics. Some thought that he could control the weather, destroy evil, cure old age and more.

According to Aristotle, Empedocles died at the age of sixty in 430 BC.

Think of the many problems with Empedocles beliefs!  Without God giving purpose and meaning to his life, he, as have many in our generation, sought to develop his own ideas to give meaning to life.

Praise God that we are not left in the dark of Pluralistic Metaphysics!  We know the one true God who gives meaning and purpose to our lives, a God who is even present with us in our daily endeavors.

God has also has given us absolute truth and some mathematical and scientific understanding about earth, air, fire and water.  Regarding absolute truth; He made them, He directs them, He blesses obedience to His Law/Word, and judges disobedience to His Law/Word.

So, we could compliment Empedocles on his power of observation with regard to seeing love and strife as the mover and mixer of the physical elements,  but we would need to teach Him that God is the Love he was seeing and strife was the lack of God's love and lack of obedience to His Word through the Fall of Man, man's sinful nature, and particular sins.

How do we know that we love God?  When we want to keep His commandments and doing so is not grievous, but a blessing.

1 John 2:3
And hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep his commandments.
1 John 2:4
He that saith, I know him, and keepeth not his commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him.
1 John 2:5
But whoso keepeth his word, in him verily is the love of God perfected: hereby know we that we are in him.
1 John 3:22
And whatsoever we ask, we receive of him, because we keep his commandments, and do those things that are pleasing in his sight.
1 John 3:24
And he that keepeth his commandments dwelleth in him, and he in him. And hereby we know that he abideth in us, by the Spirit which he hath given us.
1 John 5:2
By this we know that we love the children of God, when we love God, and keep his commandments.
1 John 5:3
For this is the love of God, that we keep his commandments: and his commandments are not grievous.

## Sunday, November 13, 2011

### Debate - Berkley Hears the Truth

The Bartlett family enjoyed listening to this old video today.  You all might like to hear it also and think about its many connections to general science, radiometric dating, geology, biology, history and more. Mr Hovind is a master debater and we can all learn a few things from how he handles the opposition, especially if you are thinking about going to college.  The first hour is a presentation with the following hour or more of lively questions and answers.

What questions remain in your mind about creation and evolution? Are you ready to defend Biblical creation? How about arranging a debate with someone your own age for extra credit?

Watch by clicking HERE.

Introduction
Taped at Berkeley University in Berkley California on April 9th, 2004. A faithful servant of the Lord tried for 6 months to get even one professor from Berkeley University to debate Dr. Kent Hovind. Over 160 professors at Berkeley University refused to take the challenge–even when money was offered to them! Since no one would debate him, Dr. Hovind spoke for an hour and took questions for almost another hour and a half. See for yourself the incredible hostility the liberals show when someone challenges their evolution world-view. This was Dr. Hovind’s second trip to Berkeley and the crowd gets more hostile each time. If you like to watch a good fight, you will really enjoy this video.

## Thursday, November 10, 2011

### Constitutional and Biblical Standards for Civil Magistrates

This report card is based on the 18 October 2011 debate.  The full report is here. Should Christians support a woman for office of civil magistrate?  Read about that here. Read about Biblical standards for choosing civil servants here.

Do you see any differences between US Constitutional and Biblical standards for civil servants?

## Monday, November 7, 2011

### Are Americans Practicing Communism?

Karl Marx described in his communist manifesto, the ten steps necessary to destroy a free enterprise system and replace it with a system of government power, so as to effect a communist socialist state. Those ten steps are known as the Ten Planks of The Communist Manifesto.

The following presents the original ten planks written by Karl Marx in 1848, along with the American equivalents.  This is also a test to determine whether any society is communist.  What do you think, is America a communist nation? Which planks violate Biblical teaching?  HintAll are violations of the God designed limited role of civil government (Romans 13) and many individual scriptures, can you name another? Are there any Presidential candidates that do not support at least one of these? Who?

The 10 PLANKS with American and Biblical notes:

1. Abolition of private property and the application of all rents of land to public purposes.
Americans do these with actions such as the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution (1868), and various zoning, school & property taxes. Also the Bureau of Land Management (Zoning laws are the first step to government property ownership) Violation of Eighth Commandment, thou shall not steal means ownership of property by individuals.

2. A heavy progressive or graduated income tax.
Americans know this as misapplication of the 16th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, 1913, The Social Security Act of 1936.; Joint House Resolution 192 of 1933; and various State "income" taxes. We call it "paying your fair share". Violation of Eighth Commandment.

3. Abolition of all rights of inheritance.
Americans call it Federal & State estate Tax (1916); or reformed Probate Laws, and limited inheritance via arbitrary inheritance tax statutes. Violation of Eighth Commandment.

4. Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels.
Americans call it government seizures, tax liens, Public "law" 99-570 (1986); Executive order 11490, sections 1205, 2002 which gives private land to the Department of Urban Development; the imprisonment of "terrorists" and those who speak out or write against the "government" (1997 Crime/Terrorist Bill); or the IRS confiscation of property without due process. Asset forfeiture laws are used by DEA, IRS, ATF etc...). Violation of Eighth Commandment.

5. Centralization of credit in the hands of the state, by means of a national bank with State capital and an exclusive monopoly.
Americans call it the Federal Reserve which is a privately-owned credit/debt system allowed by the Federal Reserve act of 1913. All local banks are members of the Fed system, and are regulated by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) another privately-owned corporation. The Federal Reserve Banks issue Fiat Paper Money and practice economically destructive fractional reserve banking.  Violation of civil government role and Eighth Commandment.

6. Centralization of the means of communications and transportation in the hands of the State.
Americans call it the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and Department of Transportation (DOT) mandated through the ICC act of 1887, the Commissions Act of 1934, The Interstate Commerce Commission established in 1938, The Federal Aviation Administration, Federal Communications Commission, and Executive orders 11490, 10999, as well as State mandated driver's licenses and Department of Transportation regulations. Violation of civil government role and Eighth Commandment.

7. Extension of factories and instruments of production owned by the state, the bringing into cultivation of waste lands, and the improvement of the soil generally in accordance with a common plan.
Americans call it corporate capacity, The Desert Entry Act and The Department of Agriculture… Thus read "controlled or subsidized" rather than "owned"… This is easily seen in these as well as the Department of Commerce and Labor, Department of Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Mines, National Park Service, and the IRS control of business through corporate regulations. Violation of civil government role and Eighth Commandment.

8. Equal liability of all to labor. Establishment of industrial armies, especially for agriculture.
Americans call it Minimum Wage and slave labor like dealing with our Most Favored Nation trade partner; i.e. Communist China. We see it in practice via the Social Security Administration and The Department of Labor. The National debt and inflation caused by the communal bank has caused the need for a two "income" family. Woman in the workplace since the 1920's, the 19th amendment of the U.S. Constitution, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, assorted Socialist Unions, affirmative action, the Federal Public Works Program and of course Executive order 11000. Violation of civil government role and Eighth Commandment.

9. Combination of agriculture with manufacturing industries, gradual abolition of the distinction between town and country, by a more equitable distribution of population over the country.
Americans call it the Planning Reorganization act of 1949 , zoning (Title 17 1910-1990) and Super Corporate Farms, as well as Executive orders 11647, 11731 (ten regions) and Public "law" 89-136. These provide for forced relocation and forced sterilization programs, like in China. Violation of civil government role and Eighth Commandment.

10. Free education for all children in public schools. Abolition of children's factory labor in its present form. Combination of education with industrial production.
Americans are being taxed to support what we call 'public' schools, but are actually "government force-tax-funded schools " Even private schools are government regulated. The purpose is to train the young to work for the communal debt system. We also call it the Department of Education, the NEA and Outcome Based "Education" . These are used so that all children can be indoctrinated and inculcated with the government propaganda, like "majority rules", and "pay your fair share".  The philosophical concept of "fair share" comes from the Communist maxim, "From each according to their ability, to each according to their need! Violation of civil government role and Eighth Commandment.

None are more hopelessly enslaved, as those who falsely believe they are free....
Ref. 1

## Thursday, November 3, 2011

### No man ever steps in the same river twice

﻿
Heraclitus was a self taught philosopher who lived from 544 to 484 BC in Ephesus.  He believed that reason is everything which he called logos.  He was therefore the founder of the concept of natural law, which is the idea that common wisdom or order pervades everything.

Heraclitus used logos to mean that reason is behind and in everything and that reason is non-moral, neutral, and indifferent to notions of justice, righteousness, and compassion, it is within nature and discoverable by man.

However, that is far different from how the Bible uses the word logos.  The Apostle John under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit wrote that logos was with God in the beginning, is God, and through whom all things were made.  The Bible equates logos with Jesus Christ as God who was creator and is sustainor of every particle of matter and the spiritual world also.  That is far different than simply an imminent force that brings order in the word as Heraclitus believed  (John 1:1-4).

His famous saying, "No man ever steps in the same river twice," emphasized his view of life as always changing, which has a measure of truth in it, but he extended this idea too far.  He viewed time as cyclical and pronounced that the universe ignites and extinguishes itself every 10,800 years.  A Biblical view of time is linear, has one beginning and one end, as God unfolds his plan though humanity and creation with the culmination of time being the final judgement and Resurrection into eternal life or eternal death.

A good reminder to do all we can to serve God and bring Him glory every day of our lives!

## Tuesday, November 1, 2011

### Solomon's Mines Discovered

As we discussed in General Science today, archeology is really interesting and supports Bible history.  Here is the full video that we previewed in class today. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/quest-solomons-mines.html

"Countless treasure-seekers have set off in search of King Solomon's mines, trekking through burning deserts and scaling the forbidding mountains of Africa and the Levant, inspired by the Bible's account of splendid temples and palaces adorned in glittering gold and copper. Yet to date, the evidence that has claimed to support the existence of Solomon and other early kings in the Bible has been highly controversial. In fact, so little physical evidence of the kings who ruled Israel and Edom has been found that many contend that they are no more real than King Arthur. In the summer of 2010, NOVA and National Geographic embarked on two cutting-edge field investigations that illuminate the legend of Solomon and reveal the source of the great wealth that powered the first mighty biblical kingdoms. These groundbreaking expeditions expose important new clues buried in the pockmarked desert of Jordan, including ancient remnants of an industrial-scale copper mine and a 3,000-year-old message with the words "slave," "king," and "judge."

## Sunday, October 23, 2011

### IndoctiNation: The Movie

What people are Saying about IndoctriNation:

### What is Biblical Freedom?

Recently I sent out a statewide email to North Dakota home educating families asking them to consider attending a training seminar on how to become a delegate for Republican Candidates.

In my email, I mentioned that "We need candidates that understand Biblical and constitutional freedom and are willing to fight for both in the context of home education as well as other areas.

I received a question from Christian college professor asking what Biblical freedom was?

Here was my reply to him, which was not intended to be thorough, but something to provide a place to help begin some discussion on the topic:

“Biblical freedoms (liberties) are simply freedoms that can be traced back to Scripture such as: socialism is stealing, abortion is murder, limited role of civil government, sound money etc.

In the political context this would also include considering the use Biblical qualifications for choosing civil servants, since freedoms are lost where those qualifications are not used.

Noticing too that as self-government (self-control) is lost to a society, then the civil government reach and influence and cost increases, which proportionally takes freedom away from the people.

Of course the freedom from the guilt of sin and the ceremonial laws etc. would be included in the broad view of Biblical freedom too."

Deut 4:5-8 shows that God's Word/Law is applicable and most righteous.  In my simplified question form, can man really come up with better laws or systems of government than God?  When man does, it is called humanism or a derivative of humanism. Did God leave man to figure out government on his own or did he teach us the most righteous principles of government and qualifications for leaders in his word? This still allows for some varying forms, such as a righteous King or righteous representatives etc.

Can we worship God any way that is not forbidden or are we to worship God in the way that he prescribes?  Deut 12:32, Matt 15:9 would point to the later. Does this apply in all we do?  When should we not worship God?  Prov 3:6

Therefore, sticking with the limited government thoughts, and pondering what does the Bible teach about the role of civil government from both the old and new testaments.....Wow...no Department of Education, no Department of Social Services, no Economic Develop Commission, no Ag Department....instead free market, home and church education, pastoral counseling, church caring for poor, and not many jails since emphasis on restitution and protection of private contracts and property etc.

Romans 13 is seen by many Christians today as a command to obey almost any law by any government, but it says "ordinance of God...good...minister of God...evil..." Can something other than God's Word define good and evil and be considered Biblical? Long story, so here is a link to a few historical thoughts in an old blog post: http://ndhsa.blogspot.com/search?q=romans+13

We are to render unto Caesar what is Caesar's, which would include taxes (tribute) for at least "wrath's sake", but not our Children, not our faith, not the truth of God's Word, nor our allegiance to the King of Kings, and not our vote toward unbiblical civil laws or civil servants!
____________________________________________________________
How would you elaborate on these thoughts?

## Wednesday, October 19, 2011

### Presidential Politics and Qualifications

﻿

I was watching the Republican Presidential debate in Las Vegas last night and noticed that Ron Paul was the only candidate with constitutional positions.  Our family campaigned for Ron Paul and I was a Ron Paul delegate for Ron Paul to the North Dakota Republican Convention in 2008, but Ron Paul isn't the perfect Presidential candidate either.  He believes in evolution, doesn't use the Scriptures to support his political positions, and therefore is not Scripturally qualified to be President.

According to the Word of God, the qualifications for a civil servant are found in Exodus 19.  The New Testament qualifications for elders could be used to elaborate on these, but these simple but profound requirements would change America, if only Christians vote accordingly.

Key Qualification:
21Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; (Remember, that men are not women, fearing God means not bowing to political pressure or democracy, truth is only found in God's Word and therefore laws would need to be aligned with God's Law/Word, and that coveteousness includes all form of socialism and the redistribution of wealth and would eliminate the modern banking system based on debt and fiat currency).

Here is the scriptural context:
13And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people: and the people stood by Moses from the morning unto the evening. 14And when Moses' father in law saw all that he did to the people, he said, What is this thing that thou doest to the people? why sittest thou thyself alone, and all the people stand by thee from morning unto even? 15And Moses said unto his father in law, Because the people come unto me to enquire of God:  16When they have a matter, they come unto me; and I judge between one and another, and I do make them know the statutes of God, and his laws.
17And Moses' father in law said unto him, The thing that thou doest is not good. 18Thou wilt surely wear away, both thou, and this people that is with thee: for this thing is too heavy for thee; thou art not able to perform it thyself alone. 19Hearken now unto my voice, I will give thee counsel, and God shall be with thee: Be thou for the people to God-ward, that thou mayest bring the causes unto God: 20And thou shalt teach them ordinances and laws, and shalt shew them the way wherein they must walk, and the work that they must do. 21Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens: 22And let them judge the people at all seasons: and it shall be, that every great matter they shall bring unto thee, but every small matter they shall judge: so shall it be easier for thyself, and they shall bear the burden with thee. 23If thou shalt do this thing, and God command thee so, then thou shalt be able to endure, and all this people shall also go to their place in peace. 24So Moses hearkened to the voice of his father in law, and did all that he had said. 25And Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. 26And they judged the people at all seasons: the hard causes they brought unto Moses, but every small matter they judged themselves.

Ron Paul is a Christian, but does not speak Scripturally in the public square, which is a common and flawed strategy of many Christians in our day.  This is a flawed approach, because it educates people out of Christian thinking and justifies decisions based on man's mind, which is humanism. The Christian faith is not a private affair, but a very public, world changing affair.  Christians were persecuted and died in the early church and all throughout history because they stood against the gods of their day (Caesars).

Ron's Paul's Statement of Faith: My faith is a deeply private issue to me, and I don’t speak on it in great detail during my speeches because I want to avoid any appearance of exploiting it for political gain. Let me be very clear here: I have accepted Jesus Christ as my personal Savior, and I endeavor every day to follow Him in all I do and in every position I advocate. It is God Who gave us life. As He is free, so are those He created in His image. Our rights to life and liberty are inalienable.

Since there are no fully qualified Republican or Democrat Presidential Candidates, our family will be looking to support a Biblically qualified candidate from another party when the option arises because we expect God to bless obedience to His Word versus our choice for the lesser of two evils.

In the mean time, I think Ron Paul's budget, which includes cutting \$1Trillion is the only one that will begin to make some progress in the right direction. Ron Paul would cut the Department of Education along with lots more, which both would have a positive affect private research and educational endeavors. Take a quick look at the graphs and list of agencies he would cut here: http://www.ronpaul2012.com/the-issues/ron-paul-plan-to-restore-america/

Here is an article that elaborates more on the Biblical qualifications for civil office:
http://www.visionforumministries.org/issues/ballot_box/biblical_standards_for_choosin.aspx

How would Ron Paul's budget or a Biblically

## Monday, October 17, 2011

### Leonhard Euler

﻿
Euler was the son of a pastor of a Reformed Church in Basel.  His mother was a pastor's daughter. Their family was friends with Johann Bernoulli, who was Europe's greatest mathematician.  Euler begain college at the age of 13.  He started studying theology, Greek and Hebrew as required for becoming a Reformed Pastor, then Bernoulli convinced him to pursue mathematics.  He wrote a disseration on the propagation of sound in 1726.  He got second place to a famous naval architect for the best way to place the masts on a ship in a Paris Academy Prize Problem competition.  Later won the prize 12 times.

Euler was a devote Christian who believed the Bible to be inspired.  I would like to find his book Rettung in english to see how he defended the divine inspiration of Scripture.

There is a famous anecdote inspired by Euler's arguments with secular philosophers over religion, which is set during Euler's second stint at the St. Petersburg academy. This may have been embleshed by the translators according some.  Here is the story:

"The French philosopher Denis Didero was visiting Russia on Catherine the Great's invitation. However, the Empress was alarmed that the philosopher's arguments for atheism were influencing members of her court, and so Euler was asked to confront the Frenchman.

Diderot was later informed that a learned mathematician had produced a proof of the existence of God He  agreed to view the proof as it was presented in court.

Euler appeared, advanced toward Diderot, and in a tone of perfect conviction announced,

"Sir, $\frac{a+b^n}{n}=x$, hence God exists—reply!".

Diderot, to whom (says the story) all mathematics was gibberish, stood dumbstruck as peals of laughter erupted from the court. Embarrassed, he asked to leave Russia, a request that was graciously granted by the Empress."

Taking this thought to the modern day, we could use the same idea and state with full Biblical conviction that:

Sir, $\frac{a+b^n}{n}=x$, hence God exists, because God created mathematics, gave man the ability to understand and use mathematics, and because everything gives God glory.

From Colossions 1:16-17:

For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him: And he is before all things, and by him all things consist.

Mathematics is both a visible and an invisible thing!
Ref. 1, 2

## Sunday, October 16, 2011

### Pig Physics

No kidding!  While looking for biomechanical studies on the motion of hogs, I found the following interesting article written for orthopedic surgeons.  On our farm, we regularly wrestle pigs to the ground in order to weigh them, and watch our 700 lb boar ruin perfectly good 1/4 inch steel rods in fencing with a playful bite.  This study shows how physics and the tools of engineering (e.g., strain gages) can help us learn more about the science of pig bones and their abilities and design. The full article is here.
Jaw muscles and the skull in mammals: the biomechanics
of mastication
Susan W. Herring , Katherine L. Rafferty, Zi Jun Liu, Christopher D. MarshallDepartment of Orthodontics, Uni ersity of Washington, Box 357446 Seattle, WA 98195-7446, USA

Abstract
Among non-mammalian vertebrates, rigid skulls with tight sutural junctions are associated with high levels of cranial loading. The rigid skulls of mammals presumably act to resist the stresses of mastication. The pig,  Sus scrofa, is a generalized ungulate with a diet rich in resistant foods. This report synthesizes previous work using strain gages bonded to the bones and sutures of the braincase, zygomatic arch, jaw joint, and mandible with new studies on the maxilla. Strains were recorded during unrestrained mastication andor in anesthetized pigs during muscle stimulation. Bone strains were 100
- 1000 , except in the braincase, but sutural strains were higher, regardless of region. Strain regimes
were specific to different regions, indicating that theoretical treatment of the skull as a unitary structure is probably incorrect. Muscle contraction, especially the masseter, caused strain patterns by four mechanisms:
2. a compressive reaction force at the jaw joint;
4. movement causing new points of contact between mandible and cranium. Some expected patterns of loading were not seen. Most notably, strains did not differ for right and left chewing, perhaps because pigs have bilateral occlusion and masseter activity.

### Johannes Kepler's Personal Creed

I was cleaning out old files today and ran across a copy of Johannes Kepler's Personal Creed, but first, here are a few details about Mr. Kepler's personal life and character.

﻿

One of the most accomplished and influential scientists of his time, and a passionate defender of the Christian faith who believed he had been called by God to glorify Him in the study of His Creation. He was a man immersed in both the Scriptures and his exploration of the heavens such that his scholarly writings often burst forth with biblical quotations and songs of praise for God the Creator.

Here are a few clips from the helpful reference below:

Smallpox nearly claimed his life as a youth and probably caused the visual impairment he endured from boyhood on (Baumgardt, p. 22). He was raised as a Lutheran and developed a profound love of God and the Scriptures which would characterize him as an adult.

At Tubingen Kepler studied philosophy, mathematics, and astronomy in addition to theology. Two sightings as a boy had piqued his interest in the heavens: the great comet of 1577 and a lunar eclipse in 1580 (Caspar, pp. 37-8).

Kepler held that man, having been made in God‟s image (Gen. 1:26, 27), comes to know His goodness more fully through a systematic investigation of His works:  For He Himself has let man take part in the knowledge of these things and thus not in a small measure has set up His image in man. Since He recognized as very good this image which He made, He will so much more readily recognize our efforts with the light of this image also to push into the light of knowledge the utilization of the numbers, weights and sizes which He marked out at creation. For these secrets are not of the kind whose research should be forbidden; rather thy are set before our eyes like a mirror so that by examining them we observe to some extent the goodness and wisdom of the Creator" (Harmonies as cited in Caspar, p. 381).

Kepler married Barbara Mueller, the twice-widowed daughter of a wealthy mill owner, in 1597, and became the doting step-father of her seven-year-old daughter Regina. The next two years would see the couple bury two infant children,
Still worse tragedies were to befall Kepler in 1611. Six-year-old Friedrich succumbed to smallpox in January and the grieving Barbara contracted typhus and died in July (Caspar, pp. 202, 206).
No less remarkable than the profundity of his scientific thought was his perseverance through unrelenting trial and hardship. He suffered the loss of his first wife and seven of his children and was plagued by a frail constitution and a host of chronic illnesses, including poor vision, fever, stomach ailments, and boils (Caspar, p. 369). Nevertheless, he found time to author eighty books and numerous other smaller works (Tiner, p. 194). Ongoing religious persecution had disheartened him but could not break his resolve to follow his conscience. Undaunted by the innumerable laborious calculations he must perform, he succeeded in discovering the orbit of Mars, the first step in his transformation of astronomy.
KEPLER'S Personal Creed:
I believe . . . that the World of Nature, the World of Man, the World of God - all three fit together. We see how God, like a human architect approached the founding of the world according to order and rule and measured everything in such a manner.

I believe . . . that together with the Holy Scriptures came the book of Nature. Should the kind Creator who brought forth nature out of nothing deprive the spirit of man . . . of every heavenly delight. I had the intention of becoming a theologian . . . but now I see how God is, by my endeavors, also glorified in astronomy for the heavens declare the glory of God.

I believe . . . that our Creator has given us a spirit in addition to the senses, for another reason than merely to provide living for ourselves . . . Man's soul is something quite different from the others part of man, and the soul is kept alive, enriched and grows by that food called knowledge. I am eager to publish my observations in God's honor who wishes to be recognized from the book of Nature. I am a Christian.

I believe . . . only and alone in the service of Jesus Christ . . . in Him is all refuge and solace.

Ref. 1

## Wednesday, October 5, 2011

### Biblical Limits on Genetic Engineering

The video below will abruptly bring you up to date with some advances in genetic engineering. The Bible does teach us that there is a moral limit to scientific experimentation and industrial production, which is being violated today.

For example, in Lev. 19:19, it says that "You are not to breed cattle with a diverse kind." Many Christians have seen this verse applied to hybrid cattle, livestock and pets. However, it also seems relevant to mixing human and animal DNA or human and plant DNA, which is now being done in private laboratories.

It is amazing and interesting to me how the Bible applies to these high tech science endeavors and thereby helps guide us in our choice of work and career. It also helps us know how to vote and inform our civil magistrates with regard to these matters.

I have a Christian friend in Minnesota (John Mesko) who was an Extension Agent for Purdue University, then worked for Dow Chemical.  He tells of the true story of him being in a meeting where the Dow corn genetic researchers were reporting on the anti-fertility results of a new strain of genetically modified corn.  It was hailed by Dow Chemical leaders as a breakthrough in GMO corn because it could be fed to people in third world countries to reduce the population in the next generation.  As a result of this, John Mesko left Dow Chemical and now runs Lighthouse Farm.  He presented these details at a home school convention in Fargo, ND a few years ago.

This is opposite to what God wants. God wants parents to have their quivers full of children!
Lo, children are an heritage of the LORD: and the fruit of the womb is his reward.
As arrows are in the hand of a mighty man; so are children of the youth.
Happy is the man that hath his quiver full of them: they shall not be ashamed, but they shall speak with the enemies in the gate. Psalm 127

### Thales of Miletus (c. 620 BCE – c. 546 BCE)

"The ancient Greek philosopher Thales was born in Miletus in Greek Ionia. Aristotle, the major source for Thales’s philosophy and science, identified Thales as the first person to investigate the basic principles, the question of the originating substances of matter and, therefore, as the founder of the school of natural philosophy. Thales was interested in almost everything, investigating almost all areas of knowledge, philosophy, history, science, mathematics, engineering, geography, and politics. He proposed theories to explain many of the events of nature, the primary substance, the support of the earth, and the cause of change. Thales was much involved in the problems of astronomy and provided a number of explanations of cosmological events which traditionally involved supernatural entities. His questioning approach to the understanding of heavenly phenomena was the beginning of Greek astronomy. Thales’ hypotheses were new and bold, and in freeing phenomena from godly intervention, he paved the way towards scientific endeavor. He founded the Milesian school of natural philosophy, developed the scientific method, and initiated the first western enlightenment. A number of anecdotes is closely connected to Thales’ investigations of the cosmos. When considered in association with his hypotheses they take on added meaning and are most enlightening. Thales was highly esteemed in ancient times, and a letter cited by Diogenes Laertius, and purporting to be from Anaximenes to Pythagoras, advised that all our discourse should begin with a reference to Thales (D.L. II.4).:

Thales made his money as a traveling merchant and accumulated enough money to support his work as a philospher and mentor in his later years.  When traveling to Egypt on a business trip he used angles and shadows to measure the height of pyramids.  He used similar triangles to calculate the distances of ships from shore.  He also was involved in the proof of the basic axioms of geometry.  He was the first to bring logical proofs into the study of geometry.

His philosphy was certainly not Christian. In fact, he reduced all reality to water, that's right water as god!  He believed that everything was filled with gods, an active power in the material things of the universe, empiricism.  The "look and see" exclusive reliance on observation also called the a posteriori way is seen in Thales, which of course rejects Biblical revelation.

The a priori way is also seen in Thales, which means "stop and think."  That is another means of humanism, in a sense, by placing man's mind and ability to think or observe above faith in God and His revelation by his Word.

References 1

## Monday, October 3, 2011

### Liquid Mountaineering - Running on Water - Surface Tension

Since General Science students are studying surface tension, I thought you would all appreciate this video.  It is NOT how Jesus walked on water!

But how do you measure surface tension to predict the speed at which you would have to run to stay on the surface?  We could probably figure out a way.  Here is an instrument that gives one method of quantifying surface tension.

And speaking of surface tension in colder climates brings up the use of snowmobiles in summer or waterskiing behind horses in a river!

### Let the Fluoride Discussion Begin

Here is an introduction to and a status report on fluoride in water and toothpaste and more.  Watch these videos and you will get an idea on why the Bartlett family buys non-fluoridated toothpaste and drinks non-fluoridated water.

What do you think about this? What other research can you use to support your understanding of the use of Fluoride in the United States? This discussion got started in chemistry class, but does affect us all!

### How can we bring glory to God in Math and Science?

Giving glory to God in the details of life, which includes science and math, is simple and a blessing to both God and us.  There are many verses which teach us that we are to glorify God, here are two:
Psalm 34:3 " Glorify the Lord with me; let us exalt his name together.

Psalm 50:23 "Whoever offers praise glorifies me."

Indirect verses such as the three below also teach us how to glorify God by praising Him and acknowledging his authority, power, presence, and involvement in every detail of life.

2 Cor 1:3 "Praise be to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of compassion and the God of all comfort."

Col 1:17 "And He is before all things, and in Him all things consist."

Prov 3:6  "In all thy ways acknowledge him, and he shall direct thy paths."

We can glorify God knowingly and on purpose in many ways, such as by praising Him for who He is and what He has done in creation of the universe and the creation of math and science.  We can give him glory by obeying His word in our understanding and attitudes regarding work and homework.  Work and homework  are not part of the curse, but a part of our privilege to serve God by creating things like he did for for the first six days!  "Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work" Exodus 20.   Work of any and every sort can be a joyful experience when done in collaboration with the Holy Spirit.

Romans 8:14 For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God.
Romans 14:17 For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.
Noah Webster in 1828 wrote this about the word "Glorify:"

1. To praise; to magnify and honor in worship; to ascribe honor to, in thought or words.

Psalm 86:9 "God is glorified, when such his excellency, above all things, is with due admiration acknowledged."

How do you glorify God in your math and science experiences? How would you like to grow in your ability to glorify God more in your math and science experiences?  How do you not (or have not) give(n) glory to God in your math and science experiences?

## Thursday, September 29, 2011

### If Engineers Were to Rethink Higher Ed’s Future

I , as an engineer, have been working on this topic since before 2002 when I launched the Biblical Concourse of Home Universities, http://biblicalconcourse.com, but it is interesting to see that even the secular folks are seeing a need to reinvent higher education.  I also have been working on a MOOC. This article comes from a recent issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education.  Let me know what you are thinking about college issues in your replies.

September 27, 2011, 10:27 pm
Atlanta — Walk into a college president’s office these days, and you’ll probably find a degree hanging on the wall from one of three academic disciplines: education, social sciences, or the humanities and fine arts. Some 70 percent of college leaders completed their studies in one of those fields, according to the American Council on Education.You’re unlikely to discover many engineering degrees. Just 2 percent of college presidents are engineers.

Yet, when we think of solving complex problems, we normally turn to engineers to help us figure out solutions. And higher education right now is facing some tough issues: rising costs; low completion rates; and delivery systems, curricula, and teaching methods that show their age.

So what if engineers tackled those problems using their reasoning skills and tested various solutions through simulations? Perhaps then we would truly design a university of the future. That’s the basic idea behind Georgia Tech’s new Center for 21st Century Universities. The center is officially described as a “living laboratory for fundamental change in higher education,” but its director, Rich DeMillo, describes it in terms we can all understand: higher education’s version of the Silicon Valley “garage.” DeMillo knows that concept well, having come from Hewlett-Packard, where he was chief technology officer (he’s also a former Georgia Tech dean).

Applying the garage mentality to innovation in higher ed is an intriguing concept, and as DeMillo described it to me over breakfast on Georgia Tech’s Atlanta campus on Tuesday, I realized how few college leaders adopt its principles. Take, for example, a university’s strategic plan. Such documents come and go with presidents, and the proposals in every new one are rarely tested in small ways before leaders try to scale them across the campus. After all, presidents have little time to make a mark before moving on to their next job.

In a garage, “the rules are different,” DeMillo explained to me. “Universities are set up to hit near-term goals. Few are thinking about what the university should look like years down the road.”
DeMillo already has a number of projects in the pipeline, including a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) and a TechBurst competition where students create short, shareable videos on particular concepts, and the university as a whole is thinking of others. One favorite of Georgia Tech’s president, Bud Peterson, is X-College, which would allow students to essentially design their own degree programs focused on “grand challenges” facing society. It would also allow faculty members to experiment with learning techniques and the semester calendar itself. In keeping with the test-and-learn philosophy, Peterson wants it to start small, perhaps with 50 honors students next fall.
Georgia Tech’s center offers a unique opportunity to experiment in an industry not known for taking risks. At a kickoff event for the center on Tuesday, I moderated a wide-ranging discussion with some leading thinkers on the future of higher ed, and among my questions was this: If you had a chance to run this center, what one project would you put on its agenda?

Among the ideas I found most interesting:
Public research on the common questions. One way for public universities to reassert their relevance is to focus on public research on big common questions facing society.

Create incubators. It’s difficult for policy makers and campus leaders to get their heads around abstract concepts of the future. Bring ideas to life in small ways, and show how they can work.

Improve social engagement. So-called softer skills are more important than ever as technology limits face-to-face interaction. Figure out ways to embed leadership, social, and global skills in everyday curricula.

Interactive learning. Remove teachers from being the center of all knowledge. Learning no longer happens with the teacher in front of a roomful of students taking notes. Find richer, more active ways of learning.

Stop teaching subjects. Teach students how to diagnose problems starting in kindergarten and then give them the knowledge to get better at it. Helping students solve problems teaches them how to think.

Revamp the college admissions process and office. Jonathan Cole, a former provost of Columbia University, said the smartest people on a campus should work in admissions, and that includes faculty members. “They need to get involved in who is living in this house,” he said. Right now, admissions is too tied to test scores, and “we’re getting boring, one-dimensional students,” he said.
So if you had a chance to run this center, what ideas would you put on its agenda?

## Monday, September 26, 2011

### Chemical Elements Put to Song

Here is a song for your family or school to learn. You could perhaps add a chorus or verse to bring glory to God.

## Sunday, September 25, 2011

### Shema Israel in Math and Science

The implications of the First Commandment "thou shalt have no other gods before me" (Ex. 20:1-3) are far reaching.  In Deut. 6:1-3, some of them are stated "..that thy days may be prolonged..that it may be well with thee, and that ye may increase mightily."

In Deut 6:4-5, we are given the Shema Israel, which was recited morning and evening as the prayer of Israel and considered to contain all the principles of the Decalogue.  Since the Decalogue is the summary of God's Laws, then the Shema Israel could be considered the summary of the summary of God's Laws .Jesus cited this as the "first and greatest commandment" in Matt 22:37

"Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord.  And thou shalt Love the Lord they God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might."  Deut. 6:4-5

When we have only one God and worship only one God, then we begin to see that there is unity and purpose and providence in everything created and happening.  We get a little glimpse of thinking God's thoughts after him.  Therefore, for the Biblical thinking Christian there is a uni-verse, a unifying thread connecting every subject and detail, it is God's design and purpose which can often be, at least partially, discovered and result in bringing Him Glory.  The alternative to a universe is a multiverse with no unifying truth, just randomness, purposeless, matter and actions.

Praise God for His unified universe!  These are some of the thoughts that give rise to connecting discussions in mathematics and science with sociology, economics, psychology, evangelism and everything else.   Because they really are related in real life through God's purposes.  A secular viewpoint keep the subjects disconnected from each other, real life, practical applications, history,  and the news.  Do you see how that could take the joy and blessing out of learning!

## Friday, September 23, 2011

### Faster than light particles found, claim scientists

Ian Sample,  Guardian, September 23, 2011

"It is a concept that forms a cornerstone of our understanding of the universe and the concept of time – nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. But now it seems that researchers working in one of the world’s largest physics laboratories, under a mountain in central Italy, have recorded particles travelling at a speed that is supposedly forbidden by Einstein’s theory of special relativity.

Scientists at the Gran Sasso facility will unveil evidence on Friday that raises the troubling possibility of a way to send information back in time, blurring the line between past and present and wreaking havoc with the fundamental principle of cause and effect.

They will announce the result at a special seminar at Cern – the European particle physics laboratory – timed to coincide with the publication of a research paper (pdf) describing the experiment."

What does the Bible teach about going back in time or traveling faster than light? Do you think this paper is valid science?  Did they follow the scientific method?  How could this research be used to glorify God?  Who paid for this research and did that have an influence on how the results were reported?

It may be a while before you understand the details of their report, but some Christians need to understand these physics details in order to help show how the results bring glory to God and support Biblical creation.

## Tuesday, September 20, 2011

### Should You Obey Evil Instructions?

The idea of whether or not to obey government authority when asked to put chemicals into the air that would harm the health of people was discussed today in a class and reminded me of this Milgram's Obedience Experiment.  You could reenact this experiment in your church or school or home and report the results.  There have been several videos repeating this. Is there a theory or a law taught here? What would you have done?  What does this say about our military forces? Which if any of God's Commandments have been violated?  Who violated which commandment?  How are these ideas being used to control people in your town? This is what makes the fields of psychology and sociology interesting.  It is also when there is a great need for Christians to take these fields captive to the obedience of Christ as the authority, not only over Christians, but over everyone.

There are two more parts to this last video if you are interested.  Would/should a Christian conduct such an experiment?  Why or why not?  Should US soldiers obey authority if they are asked to put a known toxic chemical into the air over an American city?  What Biblical principles justify your answers?

## Monday, September 19, 2011

### A Christian Philosophy of Education - By Gordon Clark

This book was influential in my life.  When I first read it, I felt betrayed by my Christian pastors and teachers.  No one ever told me how thoroughly my education could have been Christian and the advantages to having a thoroughly Christian education. Here are a few quotes to give you the flavor of Gordon Clark's writings.

" A narrow technical training provides no safeguard against being deceived.  Only a liberal arts education that uncovers three thousand years of human motives, foibles, reflections, and devices offers hope."  p. 19

"There is only one philosophy that can really unify education and life.  That philosophy is the philosophy of Christian theism.  What is needed is an educational system based on the sovereignty of God, for in such a system man as well as chemistry will be given his proper place, neither too high nor too low. p. 21

"...unless a thinking begins with God, he can never end with God, or get the facts either." p. 31

"The atheist who asserts that there is no God, asserts by the same words that he holds the whole universe in his mind." p.38

"Non-theistic justifications of arithmetic are failures because non-theistic theories of life are failures." p. 59

"In the Christian view, motive is as important as the overt act." p.66

"Experimentation itself, as the philosophy of science shows, is based on philosophic principles. The choice of methods of experimentation is directed by the experimenter's view of what the world is like." p. 68

"The early American colleges were distinctly Christian institutions.  But the public school system, unlike the colleges, was not so inspired." p. 69

"The Scriptures say that the fear of the Lord is the chief part of knowledge; but the schools, by omitting all reference to God, give the pupils the notion that knowledge can be had apart from God."  p. 73

"..Christians should organize as many schools as possible, and seek to dismantle the tax-supported school system.  The exercise of liberty is essential to its preservation.  p. 190

"Besides History there are Physics and Mathematics.  So far as their details are concerned, it is harder to infuse the courses with Christian material.  But it is not hard to do so when the discussion turns to their significance." p. 195

"The just about knowing more and more about less and less until one knows everything about nothing has almost come true." p. 195

"Broad views of the sovereignty of God as affecting all parts of the universe, and the consequence that science and theology form a single, organized, intelligible system, are both inspiring and necessary; but the only proof of which they are capable is their application to the details of physics, psychology, education, politics, and all else."  p. 215

Gordon Clark penned this book in 1946.

What do you think?

## Saturday, September 17, 2011

### Thermite and Liquid Nitrogen

One of you asked about this idea as an experiment.  Seems like this is best to watch someone else do, rather than handle the dangerous thermite yourself, at least until you know how to handle it safely.

Thermite is commonly used to melt steel, really fast, like during the controlled demolition of a skyscraper made with steel columns.  Many scientists and engineers (http://www.ae911truth.org/)  figure that on 9/11/ 2001 World Trade Center Building 7, near the Twin Towers, and maybe the Twin Towers themselves actually came down using thermite, not the airplanes crashing into them.  One video is below regarding that.  Thermite was found in the rubble.
Thermite is an aluminum powder with a metal oxide which produces an aluminothermic reaction known as a thermite reaction. It is not explosive, but it can create short bursts of extremely high temperature. A thermite reaction is initiated with some type of detonator and it can burn at temperatures of thousands of degrees.

 Have you ever seen a controlled demolition? What do you think about 9/11/2001? Why don't the government reports address the details of WTC Building 7?  Why all the fuss by thousands of engineers and scientists?  Can we trust our government? Have governments in history been trustworthy? How do we learn the truth about these things, since we weren't there and the evidence is not available to us? Did 9/11 cause people to draw closer to God? Did 9/11 bring about more Biblical government in the US? What physics or chemistry experiments would you like to perform toward determining the truth about this event?

The Open Chemical Physics Journal Active Thermitic Material Discovered in Dust from the 9/11 World Trade Center Catastrophe
Niels H. Harrit, Jeffrey Farrer, Steven E. Jones Kevin R. Ryan, Frank M. Legge, Daniel Farnsworth, Gregg Roberts, James R. Gourley and Bradley R. Larsen Pp 7-31

We have discovered distinctive red/gray chips in all the samples we have studied of the dust produced by the destruction of the World Trade Center. Examination of four of these samples, collected from separate sites, is reported in this paper. These red/gray chips show marked similarities in all four samples. One sample was collected by a Manhattan resident about ten minutes after the collapse of the second WTC Tower, two the next day, and a fourth about a week later. The properties of these chips were analyzed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The red material contains grains approximately 100 nm across which are largely iron oxide, while aluminum is contained in tiny plate-like structures. Separation of components using methyl ethyl ketone demonstrated that elemental aluminum is present. The iron oxide and aluminum are intimately mixed in the red material. When ignited in a DSC device the chips exhibit large but narrow exotherms occurring at approximately 430 °C, far below the normal ignition temperature for conventional thermite. Numerous iron-rich spheres are clearly observed in the residue following the ignition of these peculiar red/gray chips. The red portion of these chips is found to be an unreacted thermitic material and highly energetic.

## Friday, September 16, 2011

### Geoengineering the Climate

Perhaps I will be able to grow blueberries and low bush cranberries in ND after the pH lowers due to the sulfur added to the air turning to sulfuric acid after a few months in warm soil!  What do  you think of this?  Should governments be manipulating the air you breathe?  Should tax money pay for this?  Is global warming or "climate change" an issue or not? Have you noticed chem trail experiments in your area of the country?  Which of God's commandments does it violate when someone puts a chemical in the air you breathe?

Paul Joseph Watson Infowars.com Friday, September 16, 2011: Scheme designed to lead to program to inject sulphur into upper atmosphere to ‘prevent global warming’

Despite the pseudo-science of global warming being discredited with each passing day, scientists are preparing to field test an “artificial volcano” which is eventually intended to lead to mammoth geoengineering programs which will inject sulfur particles in to the atmosphere at high altitudes, a process that other scientists have warned will cause widespread droughts and other drastic consequences.

“Next month, researchers in the U.K. will start to pump water nearly a kilometer up into the atmosphere, by way of a suspended hose,” reports Scientific American.

“The experiment is the first major test of a piping system that could one day spew sulfate particles into the stratosphere at an altitude of 20 kilometers, supported by a stadium-size hydrogen balloon. The goal is geoengineering, or the “deliberate, large-scale manipulation of the planetary environment” in the words of the Royal Society of London, which provides scientific advice to policymakers. In this case, researchers are attempting to re-create the effects of volcanic eruptions to artificially cool Earth.”

Read the rest of the article and see the video here: http://www.infowars.com/scientists-to-create-artificial-volcano-in-bid-to-geoengineer-climate/

## Tuesday, September 13, 2011

### Liquid Nitrogen Icecream

This is one of my favorite experiments to learn about safe handling of liquid nitrogen.  There are many recipes on the web, here is one that looks tasty!

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream

Ingredients:
5 or more liters of liquid nitrogen and associated safety gear
2 quarts (1.9 liters) of Half and Half1 cup (237 ml) of sugar
4 teaspoons (20 ml) of vanilla (optional)
2 cups (473 ml) of strawberries (or whatever flavor you like)
wooden spoon
wire wisk
large plastic punch bowl

Directions:
1. Mix the Half and Half, sugar and vanilla in a large plastic punch bowl with a wire wisk.2. Add the flavoring. Wire wisk the mixture further if needed.
3. Pour a small amount (about 250 ml) of liquid nitrogen directly into the plastic punch bowl.
4. Stir the mixture with a wooden spoon. Be careful not to splash!
(Anyone near should be wearing gloves and goggles!)
5. Keep adding small amounts of liquid nitrogen until the mixture becomes too thick to stir. 6. Allow any excess liquid nitrogen to boil off before serving.

"Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at a very low temperature. It is produced industrially by fractional distillation of liquid air. Liquid nitrogen is a colorless clear liquid with density of 0.807 g/mL at its boiling point.  At atmospheric pressure, liquid nitrogen boils at 77K (-196C; -321°F) and is a cryogenic fluid which can cause rapid freezing on contact with living tissue, which may lead to frostbite.”

What would happen if you dip a balloon filled with air into liquid nitrogen?  Try it!  Why did God create nitrogen? What is the chemical symbol for nitrogen?  What is your favorite ice cream? Would liquid nitrogen change the flavor of ice cream?  What would you do with an endless cheap supply of liquid nitrogen?  How much does liquid nitrogen cost?  How long will it last in your refrigerator? How would this be helpful on a farm?

References 1, 2